BSBRES401A Analyse and Present Research Information

BSBRES401A  Analyse and Present Research Information

BSBRES401A Analyse and Present Research Information

Introduction

The Pharmaceutical and biotech industry is responsible for formulating and delivering vaccines, cell therapies, medicines and other related equipment. In addition, the most important concern that affects the whole industry is the safety and security concern of the stakeholders. Accidents at the workplace, especially manufacturing area of the pharmaceutical industry are rapidly increasing. The Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA) has documented that various companies often violet safety and information security legislations and regulations and also many of the pharmaceutical companies fail to accurately train their employees.  So, the report focuses on the solution of the aforementioned problem in the pharmaceutical company. The report is mainly classified into two major parts – the first part of the report includes the identification of the gap or problem and the second part of the report involves solution approach of the problem.        

Gap Identified 

Over the years, pharmaceutical industries are working for the well-being of the human beings along with the society. But, it has been observed that in last decade that numbers of accidents at the workplace of pharmaceutical industry has been rapidly increased. There are several reasons for this increase in the hazardous accidents in the pharma industries like less prevention for the staff and people working in the biochemical or pharma industries, unauthorised access and less use of the personal protective equipments such as helmets, masks and safety suits. The lack of training to the people in the pharmaceutical industries makes the chance of the occurring the errors and accident prone areas in the industries. The chances of accidents and hazardous conditions may evolve or arise due to lack of training say in the area of using and handling the radiation and flammable or explosive materials and working in the units where the sensitive and toxic agents and materials are used. Training to this areas and how to use the personal protective equipments are rarely described, explained and followed by the employees and staff in the staff. The other crucial gap identified is the unauthorised access to the restricted and highly protective areas; which makes the company to suffer from unbearable loss and excruciating damage to both the company and employees (Roeschlin, et al. 2016). Also the mandatory and obligation in following the rules and adopting them in their practice are not trailed by the staff and working employees of the biotech industries and manufacturing area of the pharmaceutical industry.

Approchable Solution 

For coping up with the gap and problems identified in the manufacturing area or unit of the pharmaceutical industry are being guided by the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act). This sets the rules and regulations for doing the operations in the hazardous companies and departments say in the pharmaceutical industries and biotech company’s where the workers health and safety is very crucial. For resolving this as a pharmaceutical company, implementation and compliance of the adequate training programme based on educating and demonstrating the safety and health measures with the accompanying rules and regulations are to be undertaken for the employees (Schulte, et al. 2014). The solution for overlapping the issues of the unauthorised access in the exerting a biometric solution for it, so that the control is in the hand of the authorised and key person of the company. The access control via biometric machines and controlling of it by the designated employee will give a control over the occurrence of accidents and other hazards in the company.

The biometric access refers to authenticate and validate access or entrances of the identified person or individual or group in the area which are restricted and critical to enter. The biometric devices installed in the pharmaceutical organisation characterises the safety and helps in lowering down the risk of accidents that are human prone and dangers the life of the employees and other fellow individuals. The biometric system or device installed in the company may be characterised or contains certain feature such as voice pattern, iris or retina, and fingerprints pattern or locks (Akhtar, et al. 2015). The biometric devise works on the method and pattern of recognising the person through automation mechanism characterised with the features like hand and finger prints; retina scanning and voice recognition that are unique for each individual in the world. 

Recommandation and Conclution 

The aforementioned suggestions for the identified gap and problem of increasing accidents in the pharmaceutical industry are ideologies by way of training and implementing the biometric devices and installations in the pharmaceutical and biotechnologies industries. For installing this in the companies and making its compulsory for reducing the unauthorised access in the restricted area can be done by giving training and demonstrating its advantages to the key people and employees in the company (De Marsico, et al. 2015). And to lower down the personal accidents and hazardous events personal protective equipment as suggested by the OSHA and other agencies is fulfilled by the installing the biometric devices and installing it in the main areas where the access has to be given to the authorised person.

For maintaining this and personal health and safety, the electrical mechanism of the biometric system via makes understand to the people and employees via training and programmes to the employees. The biometric installations made the system and manufacturing unit of the pharmaceuticals industry is equipped with safe handling and access of the device. This will make the industry to be self sufficient and less prone to the accident and hazardous conditions and events (Subban and Mankame, 2014). Exploring new ways of using the biometric device such as scanning and other field areas diagnoses the innovative requirement and initiative for providing safe and conditional access to the critical areas and also helps in managing and maintaining the employees in their own peripherals.     

For Method for collection information 

There are different methods which can be used to collect information or data.

The four key methods of collecting information are-

  • Interviews
  • Surveys and  Questionnaires
  • Observation
  • Documentation review

Interviews– It helps in collecting the data from a limited number of people. It helps in understanding someone's opinions or experience. In this method, a researcher asks different questions to people associated with a particular topic (Hobden, et al. 2017).

Surveys or questionnaires –It is an effective method to collect information. It includes several questions related to a particular topic. It helps in getting information quickly and easily. It is an inexpensive and low time-consuming method (Smith, 2015).

Observation –Observation is an effective method of gathering accurate information regarding operation of any process or program

Documentation review –Different documents such as memos, books, bills are good sources of collecting information. It is beneficial in getting comprehensive and historical information (Hobden, et al. 2017).

Meaning of different terms 

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is an effective method which can be adopted to quantify the problem by collecting numerical data or data which can be converted into mathematics statistics. It can be used to quantify opinions, behaviours, attitude and other variables and to generalize result from a large sample. Quantitative data methods include different forms of a survey such as paper surveys, mobile surveys, kiosk survey and the online survey. Observation and different secondary data are other important sources of collecting quantitate data (Smith, 2015).

Qualitative research

It is primarily exploratory research. It is used to understand and analyse opinions, reasons and motivations. There are different method techniques for qualitative research such as interviews, focus groups, postcards, observation etc. The sample size of qualitative research is typically small.       

Market research 

Market research method can be defined asan effort to gather information to understand the different factors associated with the target market. An organization conducts market research to understand needs and demand of the market in order to develop effective business strategies. It helps an organization in measuring the viability of any new good or service. It plays an important role in achieving customer satisfaction (Coulter, et al. 2014).

Census

Census method is also known as complete enumeration survey method. It is most commonly used by the government for collecting information like population, housing census, agriculture census etc. One of the merits of census method is accuracy.  It is suitable for the case where the universe is not vast, enough time available, a high degree of accuracy, sufficient availability of finance.

Geographic 

Geographic is the main factor which should be considered by conducting a research. The result of research varies as the geographic factors changes (Coulter, et al. 2014).

Key verifying

Key verifying is an important process of market research.  It is a process where two individuals input identical data.  It is an effective method for avoiding distortion of data (Mazar, et al. 2016).

Market Research Brief 

A research brief may be defined as the statement from the sponsor setting out the objectives. It enables a person plan an appropriate study.  A market research brief includes different elements such as the background of the problem, description of products or services, statement of the objectives, timing and budget constraints.

Mean

Mean may be defined as the average of different numerical value. It is also known as the arithmetic mean. It is used for representing the entire data with average. It can be adopted for calculating discrete as well as continuous data. It allows a researcher to get an idea of the large sample.

Median 

Median is an important numerical method that can be used for understanding and analyse large numeric data. A median is a middle number in a series of numbers.

Secondary research

Secondary research means utilizing the previously completed studies. In secondary research, the data is gathered from the work of others. There are different sources of secondary data such as books, research papers, article, magazines, internet etc.  This research method consumes low time as well as not so expensive (Guth, et al. 2014).

Validation 

Validity may be defined as the extent to which the collected data can be considered as true or valid. The collected data should be valid (Mazar, et al. 2016).

Data Processing 

Data processing is collection and manipulation of items collected of information or data to produce information. Data processing is imperative for manipulation of data in order to achieve a meaningful result. It concerned with coding, editing, classifying, charting and diagramming management research data. Data processing in research consists of different stages.

Stages of data processing are –

  • Editing of data
  • Coding of data
  • Classification of data
  • Tabulation of data
  • Data diagrams

Editing of data

The first step of data processing is editing of data. Editing is the process of examining or investigating data collected to identify errors and omissions. In this step, data is errors and omissions are removed to enhance the accuracy of data.

Editing of data includes-

  • Editing for quality
  • Editing for tabulation
  • Field editing
  • Central editing

Coding of data

Coding of data helps in understanding and analysing data.  It helps in determining the class of a particular data.

Classification of Data

Classification of data is done to segment the data on the basis of different factors. It is a process of grouping the data into different homogenous groups. Classification of data helps in interpreting data conveniently.

Tabulation of data

Tabulation may be defined as the summarization of raw data. The tabulation of data helps in displaying the data into the compact form for further analysis. There are different types of tables which can be adopted for summarization of data such as frequency tables, response tables, statistical table, time series table, contingency table etc.

Data diagram

Data diagram is adopted to represent the data. It includes the graph and diagram to represent the data. The numerical data can be represented by different chart or graphs such as pie chart, bar graphs etc. (Mackey and Gass, 2015).

Data Source 

Mainly there are two sources of data collection sources. Primary and secondary data sources help in gathering the information or data.

Primary data sources

Primary data sources can be collected through different techniques such as survey, observation or experiments. The data collected from Primary sources can be utilized by an organization in developing effective business strategies. There are several advantages of primary data such as better data interpretation, the decency of data, great control etc.

Secondary data sources

The previously accomplished works by other are known as secondary data. There are different sources of secondary data collection. The key secondary data sources are books, articles, magazines, research papers, bills, Internet etc. There are different advantages of secondary data sources are inexpensive, easily accessible, immediately available etc.

Estimate 

The estimate may be defined as the calculated forecasting of the data or result.Estimation statistic is a framework which can be used for data analyse it includes a combination of effect size, confidence planning, meta-analysis.

Focus Group

Focus group is an effective research method which can be used to collect information or data. It is most commonly used qualitative research method. Usually, a focus group is consists of a small number of people varies from 6 to 12. A focus group is considered as the qualitative research techniques because it asks participants for the honest and open-minded response.

Focus groups are helpful when the result of research is unpredictable. It allows customers to express their thoughts or ideas. Although Focus group is very advantageous techniques it still possesses few disadvantages. One of the major drawbacks of this method is that the thought or ideas of a participant can be influenced by other members of focus groups.

Judgement samples

Judgement samples may be defined as the non-random samples. These non- random samples are based on the opinion of an expert. Judgement sampling is non-profitably techniques of sampling.  It is also known as authoritative sampling or purposive sampling. In these techniques, researchers select units according to their knowledge and judgement.

Boolean operations

Boolean operations are adopted for research to connect the collected data.  Boolean operations connect and relate the collected data to either a broader or narrow set of results. It is effective in connecting and relating a large amount of data. It includes three basic operations that are AND, OR and NOT.

Data Analysis 

Data analysis is a process of cleansing, inspecting, transforming and modelling information or data in order to discover useful information, suggestion, and conclusion. It is imperative to analyse the data in order to identify and analyse the various important factors. It supports the decision making process. An organization collects the data from different sources primary and secondary sources and then analyse it to develop effective business strategies (Gelman, et al. 2014).

There are different types of data analysis. These types are based on the knowledge cost and time.

Different types of data analysis are-

  • Descriptive
  • Exploratory
  • Predictive
  • Mechanistic
  • Inferential
  • Casual

Descriptive –It is one of the important types of data analysis. It is a discipline of quantitatively defining the key aspects of data. It is the first type of data analysis that is performed on a dataset. This type of data analysis is commonly used for the collecting the large volume of data such as population census. There are two types of descriptive analysis Univariate and Bivariate (Wickham, 2016).

Exploratory –It is an approach which can be adopted to analyse the data sets in order to find out the previously unidentified relationships. Now a day use of the exploratory model is enhancing in the field of research.  These models are effective in finding new relationship or connections. These models are also beneficial for defining future questions or studies.  It should not be used alone for generalizing or predicting (Silverman, 2016).

Predictive -There are different methodsthat can be used to analysethe current and historical facts to predict future events. An organization can use the data to predict the future demands of the market in order to develop business strategies accordingly. The predictive data analysis models predict the future events but it does not include independent variables (Thomson and Emery, 2014).

Different Principle 

Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity means that any individual can freely participate in the different area of public life such as the workplace, accessing goods and services, education etc. Equal opportunity is a condition under Commonwealth and Victoria. Equal opportunity Act 2010 is an important legislation which ensures the equal opportunity for all without any discrimination (Taylor, et al. 2016).

In the field of research, an organization should consider this legislation in order to achieve better and unbiased results.

Ethical principles

Ethical principles may be defined as the judgements that serve as the justification in case of any particular ethical prescriptions. Ethical principles help an individual or an organization intake appropriate judgement in the case of an ethical dilemma.  There are different principles which guide in distinguishing between what is morally right or wrong. It is imperative to follow all the ethical principles while conducting research (Lay, et al. 2016).

There are numerous ethical principles that can be considered while performing any kind of research.  The key principles of research ethics are –

  • Minimising the risk of harm
  • Avoiding deceptive practices
  • Obtaining informed consent
  • Protecting confidentiality and anonymity
  • Providing right to withdraw

Codes of practice

Codes of practice guide the researchers and institutions in ethical and responsible research. The different codes of practices which should be adopted by researchers are –

  • Promote the responsible ways of research
  • Develop management policies and good governance
  • Ensure safe research environment
  • Train staff members to make them capable of conducting a responsible research (Lay, et al. 2016).
  • Promote mentoring
  • Respect research participants
  • Report research responsibly

Privacy laws

Privacy laws ensure the responsible handling of personal information of people. It is imperative to handle the personal information of the people in order to avoid misuse of the people.

Privacy Act 1988 is an important legislation of Victoria which deals with the handling of personal information of research participants (Lay, et al. 2016).It is crucial for the researchers to handle the information of research participants appropriately.

Occupational health and safety

Occupational health and safety ensure the good health and safety of the researchers as well as participants. It is imperative for to consider the health and safety while conducting the research (Lay, et al. 2016).

 Employes rights and responsibilities

There are different rights and responsibilities of an employer towards its employees. An employer possesses different rights to hire or terminate employees according to the need for the organization. An employer should perform its responsibilities efficiently to except efficient performance of the employees (Flick, 2015). Anti-discrimination Act 1991 is an important act which develops a legal responsibility on the organization to provide discrimination environment to its employees.

Ethnography

In general, ethnography refers to the systematic study or research of culture and people in which researcher observes the society and people from the point of view of the subject area of the research. In other words, ethnography can be referred to the qualitative and virtually project in which a detailed and in-depth description of the everyday practice and life are analysed and presented. There are several forms of ethnography such as feminist ethnography, life history, confessional ethnography etc. the two most popular form of ethnography are critical ethnography and realist ethnography. Realist ethnography is the traditional approach utilized by the anthropologists who reflects a specific occurrence taken by the researchers towards the person being examined wherein the critical ethnography, the authors or researchers advocate for the liberation of individuals or group which are banished in the society. Considering key characteristics of the ethnography, it is inductive, multifactorial personalized and field based and it requires a long-term commitment (Stewart, 2016).

What is Semiotics

Semiotics is an approach to cultural analysis derived from structural linguistics including the study of the different sign system. Semiotics is also known as semiology. It is a study of meaning-making. It includes the study of signs, indication, designation, likeness, communication, signification, metaphor etc. It is often used with interview-based research but it does not depend on it (Creese and Copland, 2015).

References 

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