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A1. It is basically a type of enquiry which is done in a systematic form. It is usually done by academic heads professors etc. It also consists of various theories, method and techniques. An Applied research is basically done for an educational purpose which can be useful for the students who are studying and for those also who will study in future. It generally solves a latest problem of the writer or researcher.(Krueger, R.A. and Casey, M.A., 2014)
A2.Research context is mainly the body of the research which is collected through a deep research or we can also say that the words present before and after the statements passes by the researcher. We can also call the context as a framework of the research or the situation. (Cornelissen, J.P., Oswick, C., Christensen, L.T. and Phillips, N., 2008)
A3.The question of the research must be clear and prompt so that the researcher knows what exactly he wants to know and what problem will the research solve. The result of the research must be meaningful and if the question will have ambiguity in nature then the result of the research will also have ambiguity.(Caelli, K., Ray, L. and Mill, J., 2003)
A4.Qualitative research is very different from quantitative research because
Unstructured and semi structured techniques are used in qualitative research but in qualitative research properly structured techniques are used by the researcher.
Qualitative research provides understanding of opinions and motivation of people where as quantitative research deals with the numerical data.( Patton, M.Q., 2005)
a. It is basically a research which is done for solving an immediate or a recent problem. In this the analytical research methods are used to diagnose a problem.
b. Action research is related to both action and research because of the following points:
It clearly identifies a problem
Data is collected
Data is organized, analyzed and interpreted
The data or the plan is implemented
c. There are many differences between the conventional and action research which are as follows:
1. Conventional research is done for some previous problem and action research is done for a current problem.
2. In conventional research no sharing of data is done with the colleagues and other known people but in action research data is shared
3. In conventional research the qualitative techniques are used whereas in action research raw data and graphs are used.
d. I would consider the following points:
1. Is the question which is chosen, appropriate for the research?
2. If the research on this question will actually find any solution to a problem
3. Are the audience of the area well educated to give proper answers to the researcher.(Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. and Maguire, P., 2003)
A6.Few of the barriers while conducting an ethnographical research are as follows:
1. The people might stick to their religious language saying that they do not want to learn or speak another language because it is not related to their religion.
2. There is no culture of speaking the English language
3. People are rigid and difficult to convince
4. Conflicts may arise if someone is forced or negotiated.(Atkins, S., Lewin, S., Smith, H., Engel, M., Fretheim, A. and Volmink, J., 2008)
A7.Validity is directly linked to the accuracy of the research whether it is qualitative or quantitative. There are basically two types of validity
Internal – It is the validity of the test
External- It is the validity of the use of the test.
If the validity is not there than the research is of no use. Any researcher should not waste their time and effort for studying an invalid research. (Golafshani, N.2003)
A8. Privacy is important in research because if the participants are not ensured about the privacy of the information shared by them then they will not share the correct data with the researcher and it will not result in the correct manner and the result will not give the correct outcome.(Juels, A., 2006)
A9.The ethics and code of conduct are very important for the research in the following ways:
1. If the researcher behaves properly then people will give right information.
2. The goodwill of the workplace or organization will increase
3. Code of conduct simply promote the research among people
4. People cooperate with the researcher
5. People trust the researcher (Adam, A.M. and Rachman-Moore, D., 2004)
A10.Literatre review is the first step for starting the research and is very important because:
1. It saves time and effort
2. It gives a framework of what has been done and what can be done
3. It also shows if the question is worth a research.(Hessels, L.K. and Van Lente, H., 2008)
A11.Advantages are as follows:
a. Questionnaire- The analysis is easy, we can also get a large amount of information from the questionnaire.
b. Case studies-In case studies the researcher does not have to collect the any samples and complicated tasks can be done in a simple way.
c. Focus groups-Classification can be seek and a lot of information can be gathered
d. Interview-Personal feelings can be known and detailed answers can be taken.
e. Observation-We can get what the person is saying is actually correct or not by judging the facial expressions.
f. Statistical Data-It is one of the scientific method. Decision making becomes easy for the analysis.
A12.Triangulation is a process which is used for measuring the series. It is used in the observation of the data. It is also very helpful for checking the results of the research.(Guion, L.A., 2002)
A13. Following are the factors which should be taken care of when a researcher is presenting the research:
1. Introduction should be there which should be brief and clear.
2. Objective of the research or the report should be there.
3. It should highlight the main points of the research
4. All the methods and techniques must be mentioned
5. Conclusion should be there to sum up the report.
6. At the end a list of references must be there for those who want to know more about the topic.(Black, I., 2006)
A.2.The main purpose is find out the importance of English language in the country as it helps in getting jobs and the people can easily migrate from one place to another. The motivation is to share the experiences of the migrants with others so that their feelings can be shared.
A3.English is only the basis of getting a low level job of getting entry into a higher degree of education. It also discusses the English as a second language and the experience of those who learn this. The research intends to study the experiences of the migrants and those who study this language. People who migrate from a non-English background. The potential of this research is to influence and motivate the students for learning the English language.
A4.The intended audiences are those who are studying the language and are using the language for migrating to another country. The Potential audience is those who want to learn the language but they belong to a non- English background, they can know the advantages of learning the language.
A5. The research can be used by the organization as well as LLN practitioners because of the following advantages:
1. It shares with the audience the personal feelings of the people who try to migrate from a non- 2. English background country.
3. Motivates other people or students to learn English
4. Provides the advantages of learning English
5. Shows English as a basic language for success.
A6. Yes, the points which helped in framing the main point of the report are:
a. The people who belong to a non-English background are not treated equally.
b. These people have bitter feelings of the education system or for the authorities
c.They have to learn English for getting into the country.
A7. The terms and concepts used in the report are
1. Psychosocial integration- Positive approach to for studying the language
2. Getting into the main stream education –people learn the language so that they can get into higher studies
3. People also learn the language for getting employment.
A8. Following tasks were performed by the author:
1. A deep research for the topic to find out the written material and to know what topics have been covered
2. Doing the literature review
3. Extensive research for the topic
A9.Following methods were used by the author:
1. Doing survey for collecting that and using that data by doing a classification of it.
2. Presenting the data in a graphical manner by using charts and excel.
3. By doing the survey of the students as well as of the teachers
4. By taking a detailed interview of the students
A10. The justification given by the author is that all the comments and views presented are completely based on the real feelings of the students and the teachers. No single statement is without any base or source.
The report is formed by taking into account the beliefs, feeling of the people who are learning the language but this cannot be used for any other study.
A11.There is no major difficulty mentioned by the author in collecting the data or in classifying or presenting the data.
A12.The reliability and validity of the research can be ensured because the feelings and beliefs of the people are directly taken from them through a survey of the teachers as well as of the students.
A13. Purpose of the report-The report presented by Leith is based on English language learners and their feelings and beliefs and the report presented by Barton is based on providing distance education to those who can’t get education by regularly going to the college like prisoners, benefit claimants etc.
Similarity- Both the reports have been organised well started with the introduction, body and detailed study and finally a conclusion.
Difference- In the report presented by Leith the numerical data is there which is presented in a graphical way. The report of Barton is more theoretical in nature.
Part 1 .A
1.One of the problem in relation to my organization that there are few students who do not have English as their first language, and I want to give them a special support but don’t know exactly what to do and whom to approach.
2. The research will be initiated by knowing the beliefs and feelings of the students who do not have English as their first language and knowing what are their expectations from the organization or institute(ACTB).
3. The audience for tis report are the students who are studying in the institute and other English learning institutes plus the government and NGOs who can provide support for these students.
I am basically presenting this report to motivate the people for providing support to students.
The report can also be used internationally so that more and more support can be taken from non profit organizations.
4. The research is worth doing because it will motivate the students for learning the language and for seeking support from the government.
5. There are few of the researches which have already been done for example a research done by Carolyn Derby, Hertz-Lazarowitz etc.
These researches talk about the problems which the students face when learning
English as a second language.
6. The limitations about the research are:
1. The research only talks about the beliefs and feelings of the students who are learning the language as a second language and not the feelings of the students who know English language as a first language.
2. The research seeks support from the government and non- profit organizations
3. The main point is that I as a researcher don’t know whom exactly i should approach for support.
7. The research can be used for a long time because it does not contain any numeric data and is only based on the feelings and beliefs of the students so this report can be used further for seeking support from the government and non-profit organizations.
8. Following are the ethical issues which were faced by the researcher:
1. Getting honest answers
2. Ensuring privacy to the students
3. Respecting the students
4. Find a trustful and responsible publication for printing the report.
9. Following are the sources required for conducting the research:
Human resources required for conducting the research-this includes those who talk to the students and those who will classify the data and write the report.
Technology required for the research-This includes the computers and software required for analysing the data and presenting it into a graphical way.
Financial requirement-This includes paying the human resources and buying the technology for conducting the research.
Literature-Before conducting a research, a literature review has to be done for this the literature needs to found out and read.
10. The main methodology for doing this research is as follows:
1. A complete and detailed literature review is done to find out whether what has to be done and what has already been done.
2. Doing a detailed survey of the students without leaving any student so that the correct answer can be got.
3. Taking an interview of all the students to find out the real feelings of the students.
4. Finally analysing the data after classifying it into different tabs.
11. The methodology used in this research is not very feasible because the survey has to include all the students because if some of students will be left then the result may differ.
The limitations can be non availability of all the students at one time and non availability of finances for conducting the research.
12. The validity and reliability can be checked by assuring that the answers given by the students are true and they were honest in giving the replies to the researcher.
13. Data will be gathered through a questionnaire in which different types of questions are there like open ended and closed. The answers can be gathered by the human resources assigned for this and there is no travel required for it as the students can be interviewed in the institute only.
14. The research will be done by specially trained people who will are employed for gathering data from the students.
15. The action plan for conducting the research is as follows:
a. Finalising the field and testing that all the data can be gathered here or not.
b. Assigning the job- The people are assigned for doing the survey and later on analysing the data.
c. Check for training- the researcher must check whether any kind of training is required or not.
d. Role clarity- Every person who is employed is explained what they have to do so that no clashes occur between them.
e. Timeline and tools required for gathering the data are given.
f. Classifying the data into different segments
g. Analysing the final data
h. Writing the report
i. Publishing the report.
16. The data can be analysed in the following ways
By classifying the data into different segments
1. Number of students who are feeling disheartened
2. Number of students who are not happy in learning the language
3. Number of students who want to stick to their own language
4. The feeling of the students who already know the language.
5. Support provided by the Non- government organizations.
6. Government views on supporting the non- English background students.
17. The students and the government authorities are the audience for this report.
18. The report can be designed in the following way:
1. Table of contents
2. Executive summary
4. Question for the research
5. Methods and techniques used
6. Presentation of the data
7. Analysis of the data
19. The report will be shared with the students and in the libraries of the universities.
20. The data will be presented in a graphical way
For dressing the research strategy i will do the following things:
1. I will think about the topic
2. Literature review which will involve books, journals etc
3. Accountability and credibility of the sources
4. Finding the references of the study for further information.
A21. Are the students of the non- English background getting enough support from the government and non-profit organizations?
A22. Does the syllabus provide enough details and the lecture is having interesting ways of sharing the information with the students, are the students actually attending the classes?
a. Yes, the questions are interesting.
b. Yes the question will interest be of interest to people and can be useful as the students can get more support from the government.
c. The data can be collected by knowing how many students are satisfied from the syllabus
Satisfaction level of the students
d. Yes, the experts think that the study is useful.
a. My hypothesis will gather information from the students which can be in data form and then it will be checked and classified by the experts.
b. yes, the experts think that this topic can be researched for.
I selected these questions because of the following reasons:
1. To get support from the government
2. In this research the people from the education are involved
3. Academic experts are consulted
4. This can be used for wider audience
5. Validity is there in this research as the real feelings and beliefs are shared
I have chosen Harvard referencing style and below are few of the references:
For question 1
Woodward?Kron, R., 2007. Negotiating meanings and scaffolding learning: writing support for non?English speaking background postgraduate students. Higher Education Research & Development, 26(3), pp.253-268.
Kennedy, S. and Dewar, S., 1997. Non-English-speaking background students: A study of programmes and support in New Zealand schools. Research Unit, Research and International Section, Ministry of Education.
Cruickshank, K.E.N., Newell, S. and Cole, S., 2003. Meeting English language needs in teacher education: A flexible support model for non-English speaking background students. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 31(3), pp.239-247.
Andrade, M.S., 2006. International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International education, 5(2), pp.131-154.
Coley, M., 1999. The English language entry requirements of Australian Universities for students of non?English speaking background. Higher Education Research & Development, 18(1), pp.7-17.
Yeh, C.J. and Inose, M., 2003. International students' reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), pp.15-28.
a. Explaining process
The purpose of my research is to get support from the government. English language is used. The feelings and beliefs are shared with the audience.
b. Promises and reciprocity
The interviewee should participate in the interview because it’s for their benefit only and I will give one copy if the report to them, which can be tracked b setting a series on the copies.
c. Risk assessment
The potential risk for the interviewee can be that their personal information will be shared with the others.
The confidentiality can be maintained by changing the names and locations and the all the data will be saved with the authorities.
e. informed consent
The permission of the authorities has to be taken before conducting the research.
f. Data access and ownership
The data will be kept under the authorities and they will only have the access to the data. Before publishing the experts of the education field will have access to the data.
g. Interviewer need for debriefing
The people can be affected if anyone in between shares the personal details and beliefs of someone with other people. We can talk with the authorities about our feeling without changing the statements.
The ethics will be checked by the authorities and the experts of education like lecturer.
i. Data collection boundaries
I will try my level best to get the interviewee involved with the research and to get the true statement from them.
j. Ethical verses legal
The code of conduct used is” The Australian Code for the responsible conduct of research).
The documents required are as follows:
a. Access to attendance records:for doing this the administrative head can be approached so that she or he shares the required data.
b. Survey-Survey of students must be done and the number of student must be 50 percent of the total students.
c. Recording interviews- The technical head must be contacted for recording purposes.
a. Few of the questions designed for questionnaire are as follows:
1. Where will you gather the information from?
2. How will you design the questions?
3. What will be the most important question in the questionnaire?
4. Where will you store the answers?
5. How will you ensure the privacy to the students?
6. How will you read the facial expressions?
i. The first few questions will check whether the experts think the research is worth doing, then simple questions will follow and finally i will ask that how this research will help the students.
ii. I will include 50 percent of the total number of students in the survey because the sample should represent at least half of the population so that the result must be accurate.
iii. We will be working in the middle of the session because at this time the students can come to know how they feel and their beliefs are also made. If we do the research at the beginning of the course then the students must have not faced the problems because they knew and just understand the environment.
iv. The attendance records will be checked on a weekly basis so that a pattern is formed and if we check on the monthly basis then the duration will be very long.
v.50 percent of the total number of students must be involved and all the students must not be of just one type of background.
vi. I will choose the online survey method because I find it easier to handle and it saves a lot paper and ink plus it requires less storage.
a. The advantage of using this is no need to write and carry a pen and a paper.
b. The disadvantage is that the all the interviewers must have a tablet or a computer and must be literate enough.
vii. I will use a combination of both the open as well as closed ended questions because if only closed end questions are included the students cannot share their feelings completely and of only open ended questions will be there then the questionnaire will become lengthy and will not remain interesting for the students. Plus the numeric data cannot be taken in the open ended questions.
viii. All the questions are required and no question is having any kind of double meaning. The questions are simple and none of the question is offensive and all the people can answer the question as they are framed using a simple language which all the students can understand.
ix. The questionnaire will be analysed in the following ways:
1. The first part of the questions will be of the type yes or no- In these questions the interviewer only has to say yes or no. These questions are really simple and the interviewer like to answer these questions. This type of question makes the questionnaire interesting for the interviewer.
2. The second part of the questionnaire will include very short answers say only in one word, these are also simple to answer and quickly be finished.
3. The last part will consist of open ended questions in which the interviewer can say or write as many sentences as he or she likes. These types of questions are kept so that the feelings of the person can be shared.
x. the research can be described to the respondents in the following ways:
The main question should be put on the cover page so that they can get to know what the research will talk about
Writing the purpose of doing the research on the cover page so that the respondents come to know why the research has been done and what the main motive of doing it is.
xi. Following are the instructions required:
1. The answers should be latest not that somebody is speaking of past times.
2. The answers should be honest
3. Real data should be given for example if a student is asked about his grade or marks then he or she must give the correct answer.
xii. Following are the privacy considerations which need to maintain:
The information shared by the interviewer will not be disclosed with any other person.
The interviewee will keep in mind that he or she respects the answer of the interviewer.
The interviewer is told about the people who can have access to the data before taking the answer from him or her.
All the information given by the interviewer will be protected by some government body.
xiii. Following are some of the culture considerations which should be maintained by the interviewee:
1. The interviewee must respect all the cultures and should not misbehave with the interviewer.
2. The beliefs and feelings of the interviewer must be also be respected.
3. There should be any prejudice with the interviewer.
4. The interviewee must not think that he or she is better than the interviewer despite having many differences.
5. The interviewee must not bias about the nationality.
xiv. For keeping the data secure the following things can be done:
By setting passwords- I will set a password for the data so that no one else gets a view on the data. Only those whom i want will be able to see the data collected. I will set the password in a mixture of numeric as well as alphabets so that it cannot be easily guesses by anyone.
Fresh antivirus-I will keep the system (computer) updated with the latest antivirus so that the data is not lost due to any virus in the system.
Taking backup- I will take a backup of the data also so that if by chance the data is lost then i can get the data again through a backup.
xv. I will give the following things to the respondents after the research is completed:
1. One copy of the research
2. Their amount for which they were doing the work
3. Appreciation for doing the hard work in the form a certificate so that they remain motivated and feels proud of themselves.
The research for the topic/question 1 is as follows:
The topic for the research is for getting support from the government for those students who want to get support for learning English as a second language.
The motive for this research is to motivate the students who are learning the language and to convince the government for providing support to the students.
The research question I am taking is question 1 which is “Are the students of the non- English background getting enough support from the government and non-profit organizations?”
Sources of the data
The sources from which the data can be gathered are:
1. The students who are learning the English language as a second language and they belong to a non- English background country.
2. The authorities present in the institute will also provide the information or data which is required for the research.
Allocation of resources
Now the researcher will find out the people or the human resource who will actually go to the students for completing the survey and taking their interview. The researcher must allocate the resources making sure that the interviewer can perform the task properly.
This also requires the researcher to allocate the technical resource like computers, software for the graphical representation of data.
A special technician is also required for recording the interview.
Clarity of Roles
All the people who are employed for the task of doing the research will be given clarity on their roles so they don’t end up in a conflict.
After the people are assigned their task the actual survey starts, the people will go and search for the students and the authorities from whom the answers are to be taken and they also complete the questionnaire designed by the researcher.
After completing the survey and completing the questionnaire the students will be interviewed by the interviewee, this interview will be recorded for future references.
Classification of Data
Once all the data is collected the data is then classified into different segments so that the analysis can be done easily and results of the analysis becomes more accurate.
Classification of the data is very important segment of conducting a research because if the data is not classified then the experts cannot analyse the data properly and the result will be confusing in nature.
Classification of data is most time taking task of a research on paper.
Analysis of the Data
After the successful classification of the data, a detailed analysis is done by the experts. The analysis of the data is also very important because without analysis, one cannot reach a logical conclusion.
The researcher must check that no data is ignored while doing the analysis because if the complete data will not be taken then the result or the conclusion will not be correct.
Analysis of the data is very useful in making decisions, discovering opportunities, finding out the treats and weaknesses of the organization.
Checking before publishing
The whole report is checked by the experts before finally publishing it. This special checking is done to find out the errors in the report if any.
Once the report is published then it cannot be changed therefore is becomes very important to get the report checked by the experts once it is ready.
Publishing the report
Once the final report is checked and tested for publishing the report goes to the publisher who publishes it for the people. After publishing the report can be sent to the interested people or organisations.
Following is the matrix
Implications for practice
List of recommendations
Are the students of the non- English background getting enough support from the government and non-profit organizations?
The students are not getting enough support
Proper time was given to all the students
The research could also have video recording of the students
It has wide international approach
The researchers say that as per their belief and skills the students were honest in giving the answers.
Some of the students hesitated for sharing their experience
Simple language was used
More time could have been given to the students
The study will remain valid for a long period of time as it takes the beliefs and feelings of the students.
Many students became disheartened and emotional afterdiscussing their issues.
The students were listened carefully
The research could have chosen more students
Krueger, R.A. and Casey, M.A., 2014. Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Sage publications.
Cornelissen, J.P., Oswick, C., Christensen, L.T. and Phillips, N., 2008. Metaphor in organizational research: Context, modalities and implications for research—Introduction. Organization Studies, 29(1), pp.7-22.
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Patton, M.Q., 2005. Qualitative research. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. and Maguire, P., 2003. Why action research?. Action research, 1(1), pp.9-28.
Atkins, S., Lewin, S., Smith, H., Engel, M., Fretheim, A. and Volmink, J., 2008. Conducting a meta-ethnography of qualitative literature: lessons learnt. BMC medical research methodology, 8(1), p.21.
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Juels, A., 2006. RFID security and privacy: A research survey. IEEE journal on selected areas in communications, 24(2), pp.381-394.
Adam, A.M. and Rachman-Moore, D., 2004. The methods used to implement an ethical code of conduct and employee attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 54(3), pp.223-242.
Hessels, L.K. and Van Lente, H., 2008. Re-thinking new knowledge production: A literature review and a research agenda. Research policy, 37(4), pp.740-760.
Guion, L.A., 2002. Triangulation: Establishing the validity of qualitative studies. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, EDIS.
Black, I., 2006. The presentation of interpretivist research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 9(4), pp.319-324.
Cheng, L., Myles, J. and Curtis, A., 2004. Targeting language support for non-native English-speaking graduate students at a Canadian university. TESL Canada Journal, 21(2), pp.50-71.
Chur-Hansen, A., 1999. Teaching support in the behavioural sciences for non-English speaking background medical undergraduates. MEDICAL EDUCATION-OXFORD-, 33, pp.404-410.
Epstein, J.L. and Sheldon, S.B., 2002. Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), pp.308-318.
Lehr, C.A., Johnson, D.R., Bremer, C.D., Cosio, A. and Thompson, M., 2004. Essential tools: Increasing rates of school completion: Moving from policy and research to practice. Minneapolis, MN: National Center on Secondary Education and Transition.
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W. and Christian, D., 2005. English language learners in US schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), pp.363-385.
Bourke, C., Rigby, K. and Burden, J.K., 2000. Better practice in school attendance: Improving the school attendance of Indigenous students. Canberra: Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs.