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MNC Companies are trying hard to make their consumer use more ethical products. Many strategies are already available in market yet they are facing trouble in convincing buyers. Consumers also desire to use ethical product concerning about environment and their health, life style. But because of high cost, dilemma in quality of product they resist to purchase. In this assignment, understanding the need and behaviour of consumer in respect of ethical trading is studied. How to raise awareness towards buyers to start purchasing more ethical produced products? Is it behaviour or perception which have more influence on consumer purchasing decision is also examined? Most of the consumer wishes to purchase product in cheap price regardless the quality of product. Their views, choices for ethical product is varying because of their culture, language and location.
Aim:To study the behaviour of consumer while purchasing ethical products along with encouraging them to consume ethically traded products and their decision making. This research includes aim, methods, results, and findings for every individual piece of writing in order to better understand ethical consumerism.
Keywords:ethical consumer preferences, ethical trade, ethical fashioning, ethical consumer decision making, ethical product and consumer relationship, purchase behaviour of organic food, ethical consumption behaviour.
Search Process:As per requirement of peer-reviewed, empirical and English language written articles, all the articles are taken from multidisciplinary databases like Pro quest, Google scholar and Informit. Every article is selected on the basis of similar parameters by doing keyword hunt. It is not all the time achievable to select up to date articles therefore as per instruction a year old literature is chosen relevant to research.
This paper focuses on studying that what young generation customers think about ethical fashioning. Mainly, it is a comparison between their opinions on consuming ethical products in France, UK and Canada. The technique used for conducting research is simple according to trending fashion surroundings interviews are carried out keeping in mind consumer’s demands for product availability in cheaper price. Products are shown to all the customers as per their culture, locality to examine their visible desire of products and behaviour. As a result, differences in their ethical fashion, quality of product, cheap price is the output of this research (Carey, and Cervellon, 2014).
Purchasing of organic produced food products have increased in the world because now consumers have started paying attention towards their health, usual old farming practises and being attentive towards environment safety. Aim of this study is to examine the consumer’s buying behaviour in the direction of ethical food products. Study is carried out on 228 participants by interviewing them using sampling technique. The result came out is surprising that customer purchase organic food products on the basis of their purchasing intentions not by the quality of product. This study is examined in Malaysia but detailed analysis should be required to get further new precise and trustworthy outcomes (Wee, et. al, 2014).
This study is carried out in Hong Kong, China. The objective of this study is to examine the merchandise and store associated relationship attributes of ethical environment friendly fashion as well as product cost and consumption details of consumer keeping in mind awareness of environment protection. This study is carried out on 216 participants in Hong Kong to check authority and consistency using regression analysis model. Consequently, the findings which shows up is that solitary store associated attributes of environment friendly fashion have impact on the behaviour characteristics of consumer consumption decisions. And it also has a limitation difficult to manufacture such ethical environment friendly clothing using recyclable materials (Shen, B., 2014).
The main intention to perform this examination is to observe relationship between buyer personal values and usage of ethical (moral) fashion on the basis of these personal values. This study is carried out on the basis of Fritzsche model. This model states that any individual’s personal values have linkage with individual’s moral behaviour and intentions which have some relations with moral fashion products consumption rate. According to this data gathered from US national sample this model showed 42 per cent dissimilarity in buyer behaviour intensions and moral fashion product consumption rate. In fact, a negative connection is found between behaviour and consumption rate (Manchiraju and Sadachar, 2014).
This research is performed on 109 participants. Objective of this research is to examine the buyer desire to pay for ethical fashioning with keeping in mind about buyer information, familiarity, and belief about ethical fashioning. Method is similar as other researches i.e. on question and answer basis with other arithmetical investigation. Here result of this study shows that buyer perception is based on company’s business, reputation and services provide by them and how buyer is receiving those services affects buyer purchasing actions. Data is recorded in Hong Kong and there is a limitation on this examination that buyer education level is important to keep aside the culture and raise its consciousness for ethical trend approach (Shen, et. al, 2012).
Most MNC brands are trying their hard to make their products eco-friendly and in ethical manner but still these companies are to some extent unable to win over buyers to purchase more their products despite having so many consumer attractive techniques. So, a research is carried out in UK which is supported by the guardian news. Despite having economic recession people are still wishes to purchase ethical products and the credit goes to large number of awareness campaign. But the main issue comes at the time of changing behaviour of climate. According to researchers, findings which they obtained are that only 69 per cent of UK people want to buy ethical products (Confino, J and Muminova O, 2011).
Rasch modelling is used in this study to motivate buyers for their consumption choices thus a hierarchy is being created based upon these choices. This is essential to create this hierarchy as population of world is increasing and the resources available are not enough to fulfil everyone needs. Thus to maintain balance between production and ethical consumption as per buyer behaviour this research is performed. It is carried out in New Zealand. Study is performed in this manner: Interview of some selected buyers for studying their behaviour, pre-testing to find additional behaviour and making a list out of it and hence a hierarchy will be created (Wooliscroft, Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, and Noone, 2014).
In this research study is performed for understanding the benefits enterprises obtained whenever consumer make ethical purchasing. This research is done on 688 UK participants to observe their decision making choice. The theory named Image theory is used in this research. Observing the buyers choices for products helps them in studying consumer’s behaviour and perception. Practical limitations of this study is that consumer should be unaware of this and for that separate studies is performed and later they are mixed which make difficult for the researches to identify which parameter is used for whom etc (Jayawardhena, Morrell, and Stride, 2016).
Aim of this research is to find the answer of consumer on sustainability while purchasing products from ethical trade. This researched is performed in US and the findings came out to be positive as US citizens prefer sustainability products because they are concern about their health, everyday life etc. But the problem arises when there is lack of awareness for ethical trading and product available. Three main important barriers which US citizens are facing are as follows: be short of trust about ethical products, confusion about product and high prices (Van, et. al, 2015).
In this research an analysis is done to observe the effect of corporate principles and buyer purchasing decisions whether buyer decision is inconsistent or not etc. The method used for examining this question-answer based opinion poll is done comprises of 32 items from the institution of higher education students. And the result came is “YES” company responsibility and morals do manipulate buyer purchase decisions (Trudel, 2003).
1.Carey, L. and Cervellon, M.C., 2014. Ethical fashion dimensions: pictorial and auditory depictions through three cultural perspectives. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 18(4), pp.483-506
2.Wee, C.S., Ariff, M.S.B.M., Zakuan, N., Tajudin, M.N.M., Ismail, K. and Ishak, N., 2014. Consumer’s perception, purchase intention and actual purchase behavior of organic food products. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 3(2), p.378.
3.Shen, B., 2014. Sustainable fashion supply chain: Lessons from H&M. Sustainability, 6(9), pp.6236-6249.
4.Manchiraju, S. and Sadachar, A., 2014. Personal values and ethical fashion consumption. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 18(3), pp.357-374.
5.Shen, B., Wang, Y., Lo, C.K. and Shum, M., 2012. The impact of ethical fashion on consumer purchase behavior. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 16(2), pp.234-245.
6.Confino, J and Muminova O, 2011: what motivates consumers to make ethically conscious decision? [online available @ https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/motivates-consumers-environmental-ethical-decisions]
7.Wooliscroft, B., Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, A. and Noone, A., 2014. The hierarchy of ethical consumption behavior: the case of New Zealand. Journal of Macromarketing, 34(1), pp.57-72.
8.Jayawardhena, C., Morrell, K. and Stride, C., 2016. Ethical consumption behaviours in supermarket shoppers: determinants and marketing implications. Journal of Marketing Management, 32(7-8), pp.777-805.
9.Van Loo, E.J., Caputo, V., Nayga, R.M., Seo, H.S., Zhang, B. and Verbeke, W., 2015. Sustainability labels on coffee: Consumer preferences, willingness-to-pay and visual attention to attributes. Ecological Economics, 118, pp.215-225.
10.Remi Carl Joseph Trudel, 2003. Title: Do Corporate Ethics affect consumer purchase power? [online available at summit.sfu.ca/system/files/iritems1/7703/b37148722.pdf]