# ACC306 Cost Accounting Paper Editing Services

## Calculation of free cash flows

The free cash flows of the company will be calculated after deducting all the cash outflows for cash invested in various operations of company from cash inflows from those operations (Tuominen, 2015). The following table shows the calculation for the same:

 Calculation of free cash flow Year Cash Inflow Cash Outflow Net cash flow from operations 2006 2014 300 1714 2007 2057 380 1677 2008 2095 442 1653 2009 2107 470 1637 After 2009 1637

### Calculation of enterprise value:

This is represented as an enterprise valuation method based on which the attractiveness of an opportunity of investment in a company is analyzed. The method utilizes the future cash flows of the company while making certain projections about them and then discounting them using an appropriate discounting rate in order to arrive at the present value of those cash flows from the company. However if the cash flows become constant after a certain point of time then Gordon’s method is used in order to estimate the long term valuation of company (Berzkalne & Zelgalve, 2014).

In this case there is no growth in the cash flows of the company after year 2009 and therefore no growth opportunity is used to increase the cash flow of the company.

 Calculation of enterprise value Year Cash Inflow Cash Outflow Net cash flow from operations P.V factor (9%) Present value of cash flows 2006 2014 300 1714 0.917 1571.738 2007 2057 380 1677 0.841 1410.357 2008 2095 442 1653 0.772 1276.116 2009 2107 470 1637 0.708 1158.996 After 2009 1637 18188 Enterprise value 23605

Working Note:

Applying Gordon’s model we get,

Value = D1/Ke

= 1637/.09 = 18188

### Calculation of equity value:

The equity value of the company can be represented as the current market value of the common stock of company in current business scenario. The equity value thus represents the current market price of the share of company multiplied by the number of equity shares outstanding of the company (Abhayawansa, et. al., 2015).

Equity value of company = Number of shares outstanding * Share price per share

= 369 million shares * \$47 = \$17343 million

In this case the cash flows will increase at the rate of 3% perpetually for the indefinite number of years and thus the growth in cash flow will be 3%.

 Calculation of free cash flow Year Cash Inflow Cash Outflow Net cash flow from operations 2006 2014 300 1714 2007 2057 380 1677 2008 2095 442 1653 2009 2107 470 1637 After 2009 Growth at the rate of 3% every year

### Calculation of enterprise value:

The enterprise value in this case will be calculated by applying Gordon’s model for analyzing the growth opportunity of the company for unlimited number of years (Abhayawansa, et. al., 2015). It considers the opportunity of growth in cash inflows and then the value of enterprise is calculated.

 Calculation of enterprise value Year Cash Inflow Cash Outflow Net cash flow from operations P.V factor (9%) Present value of cash flows 2006 2014 300 1714 0.917 1571.738 2007 2057 380 1677 0.841 1410.357 2008 2095 442 1653 0.772 1276.116 2009 2107 470 1637 0.708 1158.996 After 2009 Growth @ 3% every year after 2009 28100 Enterprise value 33517

Working Note:

Here in this case cash inflows of the company will be increased by 3% after 2009 perpetually for indefinite number of years and therefore growth factor will be considered in this case (Toll & Hering, 2017).

Applying Gordon’s model we get,

Value = D1/Ke – g

= 1686/ (.09-.03) = 28100

Calculation of equity value:

Equity value of company = Number of shares outstanding * Share price per share

= 369 million shares * \$47 = \$17343 million

Value of share –The value of share is represented the worth of share or the value represented by it in current market conditions and scenarios by considering the enterprise value. The same is calculated by dividing the enterprise value by the number of common outstanding shares of the company (Solovyev, 2016).

Value per share= Enterprise value/ No. of shares outstanding

= \$23605 million / 369 million shares = \$63.970 per share.

Value to price ratio –It is represented by the ratio of value of share of the company and the price of share of company in the market.

Value to price ratio= Value per share: Price per share

= 63.970:47

Value per share= Enterprise value/ No. of shares outstanding

= \$33517 million / 369 million shares = \$90.83 per share

Value to price ratio= Value per share: Price per share

= 90.83: 47

Method 1:

Free cash flow = Net operating income after tax – net financial expenses – net payment to shareholders of company

= 2740.1 – 147.1 – 3405.9 = \$813 million

Method 2:

Free Cash Flow = Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT) - Net investment in operating capital

Calculation of free cash flow

 Particular Amount(\$) Net operating profit after tax 2740.1 Less: Net investment in operating capital Increase in operating assets 1260.8 Increase in financial assets 11.9 Add: Net cash inflow from operating capital Increase in operating liabilities 84.6 Increase in financial obligations 2101 Cash flow fromoperations 3653

### b. Calculate free cash flow.

The free cash flows in this case will be calculated by deducting the interest payments after considering the tax benefit by them from the cash flows of the company from a certain period of time. Also the cash invested in different investing activities will also be considered for the same (Solovyev, 2016).

Free cash flow = Cash flow operations – Interest payments after tax – cash outflow on investing activities

= 2429 – (142.4*.634) – 898

= 2429 – 90.28 – 898

= \$1440.72 million

### References:

1.Abhayawansa, S., Aleksanyan, M. and Bahtsevanoglou, J.  (2015). The use of intellectual capital information by sell-side analysts in company valuation. Accounting and Business Research, 45(3), pp. 279-306.

2.Berzkalne, I. and Zelgalve, E. (2014). Intellectual capital and company value. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 110, pp. 887-896.

3.Solovyev, V. (2016). Comparison of discounted cash flow andeconomic valueadded valuation methods: Protect company LLC.

4.Toll, C. and Hering, T. (2017). Valuation of Company Merger from the Shareholders’ Point of View. The Amfiteatru Economic Journal, vol. 19(46), pp. 836-836.

5.Tuominen, S. (2015). Brand Valuation–Comparison of two Valuation Methods. In Proceedings of the 2008 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference . Springer, Cham. pp. 128-132.