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Addition |

Early Stage 1 KG |

iPad application Operation Math (Spinlight Studio, 2014). |

The user discovers himself as a secret agent and goes to various missions. The application is designed for the kids to enhance their skills of summing up two numbers as well as other basic arithmetic skills. It is designed to familiarize them with the basic calculations and enhance the fluency over the numbers and calculations. The app also addresses some other concepts such as the subtraction, multiplication and division. It needs the users to know the numbers, and the skills to add, subtract, multiply and divide two numbers (Spinlight Studio, 2014). |

This can be used as a challenging activity as a supplement to the |

The student will use the objects, technology and trail-and-error to deal with the problems. The app user finds the sums and differences between the two given numbers through the following two modes: 1.Addition and subtraction problems 2.Time clock promoting the calculation speeds.
The student will recognise the patterns and able to understand them. 1.Recurring problems 2.Timer offering the development of a grasp over the various number patterns. |

The student is able to handle the data and further interpret it to be used further. 1.Faster calculations enable the students to identify number patterns. 2.They become able to synthesize the patterns between the numbers they see.
The student collects and groups the objects and records them using the informal methods. 1.Sense of counting and calculating increases. 2.The analytical mindset develops and thus the record-keeping efficiency improves. |

The emergent learners are having the levels of the game on the easier side. And if stuck, they may first be involved in developing the calculation skills.
The advanced learners are able to escalate to higher and tougher stages. There they are able to improve their grasp even more by practicing or competing more. |

The app is an interesting way to learn for the students. It encourages the students to delve more into the calculations and thereby helps in developing their quantitative skills. It is appropriate for the early stage 1 students as they learn to solve the basic calculations and then are able to get hold over them. The weakness of the resource is that it is an application which is not feasible in carrying out a group activity and hence, is more suited for home than in the classroom. |

Addition |

Early Stage 1 KG |

Games Addition Tic-Tac-Toe |

This resource is a combination of the tic-tac-toe game supplemented by the addition functions. The users get a chance to place their cross or circle mark over the grid of tic-tac-toe game, but before that they are required to perform the required addition calculations. Depending upon the modifications, this may contain any other functions or calculations as well, such as subtraction. They need a |

The students will play the game in pairs of two. On every chance, they will first have to solve the calculation present in the box they want to put their mark on. Only after solving the problem, they will be able to put up the marks. And then, following this procedure one-by-one, the person who is able to first place his/her three consecutive marks will be the winner (Teodoro, and Neves, 2011). |

Student describes the position of things and then gives simple directions. 1.The game offers a sense of positions. 2.They are able to identify the patterns through the game.
The student will analyse the data of various objects and interpret it. 1.The students have to first calculate before putting up their mark. 2.The first one to place three consecutive marks of one kind is the winner. |

They make use of the graphics, and trial and error approach to better analyse the problem. 1.The students may calculate the problems wrongly. 2.There may be many draws, i.e., the cases when none of the two is able to make three consecutive marks.
The student will use materials and pictures to conclude their results. 1.The game provides an interactive interface for the students. 2.They are able to make/modify their marks and are able to conclude from the patterns drawn. |

The emergent learners may be given easier problems like identifying the next number or to identify the number written + seven. (The calculations could be made easier for them.)
The advanced learners could be given problems involving two- or three-digit problems too. |

The resource is a fun and efficient way to promote learning among the students. They learn to participate in group activities and learn the addition functions. Their skills to identify the patterns and solve the problems increase at the same time. The students get to play with each other and hence, it keeps them engaged and enthusiastic towards the game. |

Addition |

Early Stage 1 KG |

Concrete resource Ladder skip |

This activity contains a ladder plan on the floor which contains three steps and each step then spread over 10 sub-steps. Thus, it contains sub-steps from number 1 to number 30. This is used as an interactive session for the students and they are made aware of the sum of two numbers as well as the differences between any two numbers. Further, they are also able to identify the patterns among the various numbers. It requires the familiarity with the numbers from 1 to 30 and the addition of up to 6 numbers to a particular number (Schoenfeld, 2014). |

The students will be asked to roll a die and then they will move ahead by the number shown on the die. This can be incorporated with a number of students at once as well. They will have to roll the die and move ahead on to the number line from 1 towards 30. The first one to reach 30 or cross it will be declared as the winner. The teacher will supervise the students to ensure as whether they are adding the numbers accurately or not (McNeil, et. al., 2011). |

Student describes the situations using the informal language and recordings. 1.The students act based on the number they get on the die and then strive to move as ahead as possible. 2.The number on the die is the number to be added to the current position giving them the basis to calculate their next position.
Student is able to count to 30, and also able to represent the numbers from 0 to 20. 1.The students move from 1 to 30 on the number scale. 2.They sum up the numbers based on their current position and the number on the die. |

Students are able to describe the equal patterns as halves. 1.The students are able to recognise the patterns of number lines. 2.They should be able to identify the lines between the steps.
Students recognise and then able to explain the patterns. 1.The students should recognise the repeating pattern but with distinguished numbers. 2.They must identify the patterns formed on skipping the ladder steps on account of the number coming up on the die. |

The emergent learners will be taken to go up the numbers one at a time, and once again they will be made familiar to the number counting.
The advanced learners will be taken to the next steps beyond 30, to a scale of about 50, or while using 2 dies in place of one. |

The resource employs students’ participations and develops in them a learning through the sense of competition while competing with one other to reach to the number 30. This is appropriate for the kindergarten students so as to enhance their learning skills while providing proper interaction with the other students. It is a very nice resource with a limitation of requiring some pre-plans set up for the ladder. |

*Rucker, R., 2013. Mind tools: the five levels of mathematical reality. Courier Corporation.*

*Schoenfeld, A.H., 2014. Mathematical problem solving. Elsevier.*

*Teodoro, V.D. and Neves, R.G., 2011. Mathematical modelling in science and mathematics education. Computer Physics Communications, 182(1), pp.8-10.*

*McNeil, N.M., Fyfe, E.R., Petersen, L.A., Dunwiddie, A.E. and Brletic?Shipley, H., 2011. Benefits of practicing 4= 2+ 2: Nontraditional problem formats facilitate children’s understanding of mathematical equivalence. Child development, 82(5), pp.1620-1633.*

*Spinlight Studio, 2014, "Operation Math", iTunes Preview*