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There are a number of steps which must be followed in the event that you encounter an emergency situation potentially requiring the employment of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in nursing assignment help. The following steps will guide you through the process:
- Determine unresponsiveness – Tap or shake the person gently while asking them if they are alright. By doing so you prevent any accidental injury to a person not unconscious. If the patient is unresponsive, then you should proceed with the procedure.
- Positioning before initiating CPR - Place the patient on a firm, flat surface. Kneel at the level of the patient's shoulders. In case there may be head or neck trauma then then don’t move the patient unless absolutely. In the abovementioned position you will be able to perform breathing and chest compression without having to change position.
- Check Circulation – While maintaining head-tilt with one hand on the patient's forehead, palpate the carotid or femoral pulse. If after 10 seconds there is no discernable pulse, then begin performing external chest compressions. Lack of pulse in prominent arteries is a sign of cardiac arrest. If the patient has a pulse, begin rescue breathing at the rate of 5 times per second.
- External Chest Compression - Kneel as close to the patient's chest as possible. Place the heel of one hand on the middle third of the sternum. The fingers may either be extended or interlaced but must be kept off the chest. The long axis of the heel of the rescuer's hand should be placed on the long axis of the sternum to put the main force of the compression on the sternum. This will reduce the possibility of rib fracture. While keeping your arms straight, elbows locked, and shoulders positioned directly over your hands, quickly and forcefully depress the middle third of the patient's sternum straight down one-third the depth of the chest.
- Release the external chest compression completely and allow the chest to return to its normal position after each compression. The time allowed for release should equal the time required for compression. Do not lift your hands from the patient's chest or change position. Release of the external chest compression allows blood flow into the heart.
- For cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by one rescuer, do 30 compressions at a rate of 100 per minute and then perform two ventilations re-evaluate the patient. After four cycles of 30 compressions and two breaths each, check the pulse; check again every few minutes thereafter. Minimize interruptions of chest compressions. Rescue breathing and external chest compressions must be combined. Check for return of carotid pulse. If absent, resume CPR with two ventilations followed by compressions. For CPR performed by health professionals, mouth-to-mask ventilation is an acceptable alternative to rescue breathing.
- For CPR performed by two rescuers, the compression rate is 100 per minute. The compression-ventilation ratio is 30:2. Once an advanced airway is in place, the compressing rescuer should give continuous chest compressions at a rate of 100 without pauses for ventilation. The rescuer delivering ventilation provides 8 to 10 breaths per minute.
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